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OREGON — Like opening the blinds and stepping into the shower, a cup of coffee gets people moving in the morning — in more ways than one. This satisfying brew revs energy levels with a dose of caffeine and, for many people, quickly and reliably jump-starts gut activity and an urgent need to poop.rr
But given coffee’s popularity, it’s surprising that we know so little about how it affects the gastrointestinal tract, said Dr Robert Martindale, a professor of surgery and medical director for hospital nutrition services at Oregon Health and Science University.rr
Some studies on the topic — which tend to be small, old and limited — have suggested that it’s probably not the caffeine that triggers the urge to go. A paper published in 1998, for instance, found that decaffeinated coffee had a similar stimulatory effect on the colon as caffeinated coffee, whereas a cup of hot water did not.rr
Coffee is a complex beverage containing more than 1,000 chemical compounds, many of which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. And determining how they affect the intestines is challenging.rr
One thing we do know is that coffee doesn’t affect everyone the same way. In one study published in 1990 in the journal Gut, 92 young adults filled out a questionnaire about how coffee affected their bowel habits; just 29 per cent of the respondents said it “induced a desire to defecate,” and most of them — 63 per ceny — were female.rr
(But Dr Martindale said the percentage of people who have a bowel response after drinking coffee is likely much higher in the general population — he estimated that about 60 per cent of his patients do — and he hasn’t noticed any differences between men and women.)rr
We also know that a gut response to coffee can happen fast. In the same study, some volunteers agreed to have a pressure-sensing probe inserted into their colon to measure intestinal muscle contractions before and after drinking a cup of joe. Among those who said coffee usually stimulated a bowel movement, the probe showed a significant increase in pressure within four minutes of drinking coffee, while the so-called nonresponders had no change in colon activity.rr
That drinking a cup of coffee can stimulate the opposite end of the gastrointestinal tract within minutes means “it’s probably going through the gut-brain axis,” Dr Martindale said. That is, the arrival of coffee in the stomach sends a message to the brain, which then “stimulates the colon to say, ‘Well, we’d better empty out, because things are coming downstream,’” he explained.rr
The coffee itself would move through the intestines much more slowly, probably taking at least an hour to traverse the long path from the stomach through the small intestine and to the colon.rr
This communication among the stomach, brain and colon, called the gastrocolic reflex, is a normal response to eating. But coffee seems to have an outsized effect; a study published in 1998 found that eight ounces of coffee stimulated colonic contractions similar to those induced by a 1,000-calorie meal.